U.S. History Timeline 1901-2000
On March 2, U.S. Steel Corporation is formed. Capitalized at $1.4 billion, it is first billion dollar corporation in U.S. history.
|1901-2000||the economy||United States||Pennsylvania|
|1901||The American Socialist Party is formed in New York City on August 1.||1901-2000||politics||United States||New York|
|1901||President William McKinley is assassinated. He is shot on September 6 and dies on September 14. Later that day Vice President Theodore Roosevelt (New York) becomes the twenty-sixth President.||1901-2000||violence & terrorism||United States||District of Columbia|
|1901||On November 18, the Hay-Paunceforte Treaty with Great Britain gives the United States the exclusive right to build the Panama Canal.||1901-2000||territorial expansion||United States||N.A.|
New York City journalists Lincoln Steffens and Ida Tarbell publish muckraking articles and books.
|1901-2000||literature||United States||New York|
|1902||On May 20, Cuba gains its independence from the United States.||1901-2000||international affairs||Cuba||N.A.|
On December 17, the Wright Brothers fly the first airplane off the coast of North Carolina.
|1901-2000||science & technology||United States||North Carolina|
|1904||On March 14, the U.S. Supreme Court rules against the Northern Securities Trust in the first major anti-trust case brought before the high court.||1901-2000||law||United States||District of Columbia|
|1904||On May 4, the U.S. government takes over construction of the Panama Canal from a French firm. On January 7, 1914, the first ship uses the Canal.||1901-2000||territorial expansion||United States||N.A.|
|1904||On October 27, the first section of the New York City Subway System is opened. It runs from City Hall in lower Manhattan to145th Street in Harlem.||1901-2000||science & technology||United States||New York|
|1906||On October 6, U.S Marines occupy Cuba. They will remain there until 1909.||1901-2000||international affairs||Cuba||N.A.|
Upton Sinclair (California) publishes The Jungle on February 28.
|1906||On April 18, the San Francisco Earthquake kills approximately 3,000 people.||1901-2000||the environment||United States||California|
|1906||The Meat Inspection Act becomes law on June 30.||1901-2000||law||United States||District of Columbia|
|1906||The Pure Food and Drug Act becomes law on June 30.||1901-2000||law||United States||District of Columbia|
The "Gentleman's Agreement" signed between the United States and Japan on February 15, restricts immigration from Japan.
|1901-2000||international affairs||United States||District of Columbia|
|1907||On November 16, Oklahoma becomes the forty-sixth state.||1901-2000||statehood||United States||Oklahoma|
Henry Ford introduces the Model T in Detroit on October 1.
|1901-2000||the economy||United States||Michigan|
On November 3, William Howard Taft of Ohio is elected the twenty-seventh President of the U.S.
|1909||The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is formed in New York City on February 12.||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||New York|
The thirteenth U.S. census reveals that the nation's population on April 5 is 92,228,496
|1910||On November 8, male voters in Washington State approve woman suffrage.||1901-2000||women's rights||United States||Washington|
|1910||The Mexican Revolution begins on November 20. It will continue for the next decade and over one million Mexicans will die in the military and political violence.||1901-2000||international affairs||Mexico||N.A.|
|1911||The Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire in New York City on March 25 kills 146 women employees.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||New York|
|1911||On May 15, the Standard Oil Antitrust Case is decided by the U.S. Supreme Court which rules that the trust should be disbanded.||1901-2000||law||United States||District of Columbia|
|1911||California's male voters grants woman suffrage by referendum on October 10.||1901-2000||women's rights||United States||California|
|1911||The Chinese Revolution begins on October 10. The Republic of China is formed on February 12, 1912 but the fighting continues until October 1, 1949 when the Communists under Mao Zedong, take control of the nation.||1901-2000||international affairs||China||N.A.|
|1912||On January 6, New Mexico becomes the forty-seventh state.||1901-2000||statehood||United States||New Mexico|
|1912||On February 14, Arizona becomes the forty-eighth state.||1901-2000||statehood||United States||Arizona|
|1912||U.S. Marines land in Nicaragua on August 14. They will remain there until 1925.||1901-2000||international affairs||Nicaragua||N.A.|
On November 5, Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey is elected the twenty-eight President of the U.S.
|1901-2000||politics||United States||New Jersey|
|1912||On November 5, Arizona, Kansas, and Oregon grant woman suffrage by referendum.||1901-2000||women's rights||United States||N.A.|
On February 3, the Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution, creating the federal income tax, becomes law with its ratification by New Mexico.
|1901-2000||constitutional amendments||United States||New Mexico|
On April 8, the Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution, requiring the direct election of U.S. Senators, becomes law with its ratification by Connecticut.
|1901-2000||constitutional amendments||United States||Connecticut|
|1913||On June 26, Illinois Governor Edward F. Dunne signs law allowing the women of the state to vote in presidential elections only. Nonetheless it becomes the first state east of the Mississippi to extend voting right to women. Alaska Territory also grants women the right to vote.||1901-2000||women's rights||United States||Illinois|
The Federal Reserve Act become law on December 24.
|1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1914||On April 21, U.S. troops land in Veracruz, Mexico, beginning a six-month occupation.||1901-2000||international affairs||Mexico||N.A.|
|1914||World War I begins in Europe on July 28.||1901-2000||war||N.A.||N.A.|
The Federal Trade Commission is established on September 26.
|1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1914||The Clayton Anti-Trust Act is passed by Congress on October 8.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1914||On November 3, Montana and Nevada grant women the right to vote with approvals of new constitutions.||1901-2000||women's rights||United States||N.A.|
|1915||The Lusitania is torpedoed and sunk by a German U-boat in the North Atlantic on May 7.||1901-2000||international affairs||United States||N.A.|
|1915||U.S. Marines are sent to Haiti on July 28. The Marines will occupy that nation until 1934.||1901-2000||international affairs||Haiti||N.A.|
Francisco "Pancho" Villa raids Columbus, New Mexico on March 9. In response General John J. Pershing leads 4,800 U.S. soldiers on a punitive expedition into Mexico which begins on March 14 and ends on February 7, 1917.
|1901-2000||international affairs||United States||New Mexico|
|1916||The Workingmen's Compensation Act is passed.||1901-2000||labor & unions||United States||District of Columbia|
|1916||The National Park Service is established by Congress on August 25.||1901-2000||the environment||United States||District of Columbia|
On November 7, Jeanette Rankin, a Montana Republican, becomes the first woman elected to Congress.
|1917||The United States enters World War I on April 6.||1901-2000||war||United States||N.A.|
|1917||North Dakota, Ohio, Indiana, Rhode Island, Nebraska, Michigan, New York and Arkansas grant women the right to vote.||1901-2000||women's rights||United States||N.A.|
On January 8, President Woodrow Wilson proposes the Fourteen Points to establish peace in the post World War I world.
|1901-2000||international affairs||N.A.||District of Columbia|
|1918-1919||The worldwide influenza pandemic, which begins in the autumn of 1918, eventually kills approximately 30 million people worldwide including 675,000 Americans.||1901-2000||health & medicine||N.A.||N.A.|
On January 6, the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which prohibits the sale of alcohol, becomes law with its ratification by Wyoming.
|1901-2000||constitutional amendments||United States||Wyoming|
|1919||The Seattle General Strike takes place from February 6 to February 11.||1901-2000||labor & unions||United States||Washington|
|1919||The American Legion is founded in Paris, France on March 15, when one thousand American Army officers and enlisted men attend a caucus.||1901-2000||politics||France||N.A.|
|1919||The Treaty of Versailles is signed at the Paris Peace Conference on June 28.||1901-2000||international affairs||France||N.A.|
|1919-1920||The Red Scare.||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||N.A.|
The fourteenth U.S. census reveals that the nation's population on January 5 is 106,021,527
|1920||The U.S. Steel Antitrust Case is decided by the U.S. Supreme Court on March 1.||1901-2000||law||United States||District of Columbia|
On August 18, the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which grants women the right to vote, becomes law with its ratification by Tennessee.
|1901-2000||constitutional amendments||United States||Tennessee|
On October 23, Sinclair Lewis (Minnesota) publishes Main Street.
On November 2, Warren G. Harding of Ohio is elected the twenty-ninth President of the U.S.
The Teapot Dome Scandal evolves in California and Washington, D.C. in the summer. In 1929 New Mexico Senator Albert Fall becomes the first former cabinet officer sentenced to prison.
President Warren G. Harding dies in office on August 2. Later that day Vice President Calvin Coolidge (Massachusetts) becomes the thirtieth President of the U.S.
|1901-2000||politics||United States||District of Columbia|
The Immigration Act of 1924 is signed into law on June 30 by President Calvin Coolidge. The act closes virtually all immigration to the U.S.
|1901-2000||immigration||United States||District of Columbia|
|1925||Schoolteacher John Thomas Scopes is convicted on July 21 of violating Tennessee's ban on teaching evolution in the "Scopes Monkey Trial."||1901-2000||religion||United States||Tennessee|
F. Scott Fitzgerald (Minnesota) publishes The Great Gatsby.
Ernest Hemingway (Illinois) publishes The Sun Also Rises.
On May 20-21, Charles Lindbergh (Minnesota) flies solo across the Atlantic from New York to Paris.
|1927||The first talking motion picture, The Jazz Singer, is released in Hollywood on October 6.||1901-2000||popular culture||United States||California|
On November 7, Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover of California becomes the thirty-first President of the U.S.
Ernest Hemingway publishes A Farwell to Arms.
The Stock Market Crashes on October 24, initiating the twelve-year Great Depression.
|1901-2000||the economy||United States||New York|
The fifteenth U.S. census reveals that the nation's population on April 1 is 122,775,046.
|1931||The 102-story Empire State Building, then the world's tallest building, opens on May 1 in New York City.||1901-2000||science & technology||United States||New York|
|1931||Chicago gangster Al Capone is convicted of tax evasion on October 18 and is later sent to the federal penitentiary in Atlanta.||1901-2000||popular culture||United States||Illinois|
On November 8, New York Governor Franklin Roosevelt is elected the thirty-second President of the U.S.
|1901-2000||politics||United States||New York|
On January 23, the Twentieth Amendment, which sets dates for the beginning of presidential and congressional terms, becomes law with its ratification by Utah.
|1901-2000||constitutional amendments||United States||Utah|
|1933||Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany on January 30.||1901-2000||international affairs||Germany||N.A.|
|1933||On March 5, President Roosevelt declares a four-day Bank Holiday, closing all banking institutions in the U.S. to stop the banking panic.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1933||The Emergency Banking Act is passed by Congress on March 9. This is the first act of the Hundred Days Session of Congress, the most active period of legislation crafting in the history of the United States.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1933||Congress passes the Reforestation Relief Act on March 31, which establishes the Civilian Conservation Corps. The CCC provides immediate work for 250,000 young men between 18 and 25 in reforestation. By the time it ends in 1941, nearly two million young men will have been employed.||1901-2000||the environment||United States||District of Columbia|
|1933||On April 19, President Roosevelt by executive order takes the nation off the gold standard.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1933||On May 12, Congress passes the Federal Emergence Relief Act which authorizes immediate grants to states for relief projects.||1901-2000||labor & unions||United States||District of Columbia|
|1933||On May 12, President Roosevelt signs the Agricultural Adjustment Act which provides help to farmers.||1901-2000||agriculture||United States||District of Columbia|
|1933||On May 18, Congress establishes the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1933||On May 27, the Federal Securities Act is passed by Congress to regulate stocks and bonds.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1933||Congress passes the Home Owners Refinancing Act on June 13 to provide mortgage money and other assistance to homeowners.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1933||On June 16, Congress passes the Public Works Administration (PWA).||1901-2000||labor & unions||United States||District of Columbia|
|1933||On June 16, Congress passes the National Recovery Administration (NRA).||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1933||On June 16, Congress passes the Farm Credit Act.||1901-2000||agriculture||United States||District of Columbia|
|1933||On June 16, Congress passes the Banking Act of 1933 which establishes the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. This is the final piece of major legislation created during the Hundred Days Session.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1933||On August 5, President Roosevelt establishes the National Labor Board by executive order to enforce the right of collective bargaining.||1901-2000||labor & unions||United States||District of Columbia|
|1933||On November 9, President Roosevelt by executive order creates the Civil Works Administration (CWA ) to provide work for the unemployed.||1901-2000||labor & unions||United States||District of Columbia|
On December 5, the Twenty-First Amendment to the Constitution, which repeals the Eighteenth Amendment (prohibition), becomes law with its ratification by Utah.
|1901-2000||constitutional amendments||United States||Utah|
|1934||On January 30, Congress passes the Gold Reserve Act to give the government control over fluctuations in the value of the dollar.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1934||On February 2, President Roosevelt establishes by executive order the Import-Export Bank of Washington to encourage commerce between the U.S. and other nations.||1901-2000||international affairs||United States||District of Columbia|
|1934||The Civil Works Emergency Relief Administration (CWA) is created by Congress on February 15, to stimulate the economy.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1934||Congress passes the Crop Loan Act on February 23 (which continues as the Farm Credit Administration) to provide loans to farmers.||1901-2000||agriculture||United States||District of Columbia|
|1934||On April 21, Congress passes the Cotton Control Act which for the first time imposes quotas limiting agricultural production. Subsequent legislation passed on May 9 and June 28 cover sugar and tobacco.||1901-2000||agriculture||United States||District of Columbia|
|1934||On June 6, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) created by Congress.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1934||On June 12, Congress passes the Farm Mortgage Foreclosure Act which allows loans to farmers to recover property lost in foreclosure.||1901-2000||agriculture||United States||District of Columbia|
|1934||Congress passes the Indian Reorganization Act on June 18 which restored tribal landholding rights and temporarily halted the termination of Indian reservations.||1901-2000||Native Americans||United States||District of Columbia|
|1934||On June 19, Congress establishes the National Labor Relations Board.||1901-2000||labor & unions||United States||District of Columbia|
|1934||Congress passes the National Housing Act on June 28 which creates the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) to insure loans for the construction, renovation, and repair of homes.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1934||The Taylor Grazing Act is passed by Congress on June 28. The act sets aside eight million acres of public lands for grazing by private stockowners.||1901-2000||agriculture||United States||District of Columbia|
|1934||On June 28, Congress passes the Federal Farm Bankruptcy Act which places a moratorium on farm mortgage foreclosures.||1901-2000||agriculture||United States||District of Columbia|
|1935||On April 8, Congress passes the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act which establishes the Works Progress Administration (WPA). When the WPA begins on May it will commence work on thousands of roads, public buildings, parks and bridges and provide employment for artists, musicians, actors, and writer.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1935||The Resettlement Administration (RA), which helps farm families relocate, is established by executive order on May 1.||1901-2000||agriculture||United States||District of Columbia|
|1935||On May 11, the Roosevelt Administration established the Rural Electrification Administration (REA) to help bring electricity to previously unserved areas.||1901-2000||agriculture||United States||District of Columbia|
|1935||On May 27, the U.S. Supreme Court in Schecter Poultry Corp. v. United States rules that the NIRA of 1933 is unconstitutional. This is the first major court challenge of New Deal legislation.||1901-2000||law||United States||District of Columbia|
|1935||On August 14, President Roosevelt signs into law the Social Security Act.||1901-2000||social reform||United States||District of Columbia|
|1935||On August 23, Congress passes the Banking Act of 1935 which revises the operation of the Federal Reserve System.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1935||On August 26, President Roosevelt signs the Public Utilities Act which gives federal agencies greater power in regulating gas and electric companies.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1935||On August 30, Congress passes the Revenue Act which increases taxes on inheritances, gifts, and on high income individuals.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1935||On September 15, the Nuremburg Laws are implemented against German Jews.||1901-2000||international affairs||Germany||N.A.|
|1935||The Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) is formed in New York City on November 9 by eight industrial unions formerly affiliated with the American Federation of Labor.||1901-2000||labor & unions||United States||New York|
|1936||On January 6, the U.S. Supreme Court in U.S. v. Butler rules that the Agricultural Adjustment Act is unconstitutional.||1901-2000||law||United States||District of Columbia|
|1937||President Franklin Roosevelt announces U.S. Supreme Court packing plan on February 5.||1901-2000||politics||United States||District of Columbia|
|1937||On March 1, Congress passes the Supreme Court Retirement Act which permits Supreme Court Justices to retire at 70 with full pay.||1901-2000||politics||United States||District of Columbia|
|1937||On April 12, the U.S. Supreme Court declares the National Labor Relations Act is constitutional.||1901-2000||labor & unions||United States||District of Columbia|
|1937||On May 24, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that the Social Security Act is constitutional.||1901-2000||social reform||United States||District of Columbia|
|1937||Japan invades China on July 7.||1901-2000||international affairs||China||N.A.|
|1938||On June 25, President Franklin Roosevelt signs into law the Fair Labor Standards Act which initiates a minimum wage of 25 cents per hour and a 40 hour work week.||1901-2000||labor & unions||United States||District of Columbia|
|1938||The Munich Agreement signed on September 29 by Neville Chamberlain (Great Britain), Edouard Daladier (France), Adolph Hitler (Germany) and Benito Mussolini (Italy) grants concessions to Germany in the hopes of avoiding a major war in Europe.||1901-2000||international affairs||N.A.||N.A.|
|1938||On November 9, Kristallnacht begins in Germany and results in the deaths of 91 Jews, the removal of 30,000 Jewish men to concentration camps, and the wholesale destruction of Jewish owned property.||1901-2000||international affairs||Germany||N.A.|
|1939||Pan Am inaugurates regular passenger airline service across the Atlantic on May 20.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||N.A.|
|1939||The Hatch Act is passed on August 2. It prohibits all but the highest-ranking government officials from participating in political campaigns or soliciting campaign contributions.||1901-2000||politics||United States||District of Columbia|
|1939||On August 23, the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact is signed.||1901-2000||international affairs||N.A.||N.A.|
|1939||On August 27, Germany flies the first jet aircraft.||1901-2000||science & technology||Germany||N.A.|
The fifteenth U.S. census reveals that the nation's population on April 1 is 132,164,569.
|1940||Beginning on April 9, Germany invades Denmark and Norway and eventually the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.||1901-2000||war||N.A.||N.A.|
|1940||On May 26, Russian-born Igor Sikorsky files the first practical helicopter in Stratford, Connecticut.||1901-2000||science & technology||United States||Connecticut|
|1940||The United States institutes the first peacetime draft on October 16.||1901-2000||war||United States||District of Columbia|
|1941||President Roosevelt issues Executive Order 8802 on June 25, which prohibits discrimination based on race, religion, and creed in corporations with federal contracts. It also creates the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC).||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||District of Columbia|
|1941||Japan attacks Pearl Harbor on December 7 and the U.S. enters World War II the following day.||1901-2000||war||United States||Hawaii|
|1942||President Franklin Roosevelt issues Executive Order 9066 on February 19, which calls for the internment of Japanese aliens and Japanese American citizens. The first Japanese to be "evacuated" are from Bainbridge Island, Washington.||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||District of Columbia|
|1942||On May 11, the first U.S. Army units arrive in North Africa in the first major land-based military operation of American forces in World War II.||1901-2000||war||N.A.||N.A.|
|1942||The Battle of Midway Island, May 4-7, is the first significant U.S. Naval victory in World War II.||1901-2000||war||N.A.||N.A.|
|1943||On June 4, the Zoot Suit Riot erupts in Los Angeles.||1901-2000||violence & terrorism||United States||California|
|1944||The Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe begins on D-Day, June 6.||1901-2000||war||N.A.||N.A.|
|1944||On June 22, President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law the Servicemen's Readjustment Act popularly known as the G.I. Bill.||1901-2000||social reform||United States||District of Columbia|
|1944||On December 16, German forces in Belgium and northern France begin a counteroffensive against Allied troops that will be known as the Battle of the Bulge. The offensive ends on January 25, 1945, when German forces lose all the ground captured since December 16.||1901-2000||war||N.A.||N.A.|
|1944||On December 18, the U.S Supreme Court in Korematsu v. United States affirms the right of the government to intern Japanese aliens and Japanese citizens during a war emergency.||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||District of Columbia|
|1945||The Battles of Iwo Jima, Feb. 19-March 26, and Okinawa, April 1-June 22, are major victories for American Marines against Imperial Japan.||1901-2000||war||N.A.||N.A.|
President Franklin Roosevelt dies in office on April 12 while visiting Warm Springs, Georgia. Later that day Vice President Harry S. Truman of Missouri becomes the thirty-third President of the U.S.
|1945||The United Nations is established in San Francisco on April 25.||1901-2000||international affairs||United States||California|
|1945||Germany surrenders on V-E Day, May 8.||1901-2000||international affairs||Germany||N.A.|
|1945||The Potsdam (Germany) Conference on July 16 to August 2 is the fourth and last Allied Conference on war strategy and the post-war world. This is also the first summit conference where the United States is represented by President Harry Truman.||1901-2000||international affairs||Germany||N.A.|
|1945||Atomic bombs are dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9 respectively.||1901-2000||war||Japan||N.A.|
|1945||Japan surrenders on V-J Day, August 15. The formal surrender ceremony takes place on September 2 on the Battleship Missouri anchored in Tokyo Bay.||1901-2000||war||Japan||N.A.|
|1945||The U.S. Congress officially recognizes the Pledge of Allegiance on December 28.||1901-2000||popular culture||United States||District of Columbia|
|1946||Post-war baby boom begins on January 1, reaches its peak in 1957 and ends in 1964.||1901-2000||population||United States||N.A.|
|1946||The Employment Act of 1946, signed into law on February 20 by President Harry S. Truman, creates the Council of Economic Advisors.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
Most observers date the beginning of the Cold War to a speech given by former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri on March 5, where he uses the term "Iron Curtain" for the first time.
|1901-2000||international affairs||United States||Missouri|
Dr. Benjamin Spock publishes The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care. The book sells over 25 million copies and revolutionizes childcare in the U.S.
|1901-2000||popular culture||United States||Connecticut|
|1946||Nuremburg War Crimes trials end in Germany with the execution on October 16 of nine major Nazi war criminals.||1901-2000||international affairs||Germany||N.A.|
|1947||The Truman Doctrine is announced by President Harry Truman in a speech to Congress on March 12.||1901-2000||international affairs||United States||District of Columbia|
|1947||The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program begins on June 5 and continues until 1952.||1901-2000||international affairs||N.A.||N.A.|
|1947||The National Security Act is signed into law by President Harry S. Truman on July 25. The act creates the National Security Council (NSC) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).||1901-2000||national security||United States||District of Columbia|
|1947||India and Pakistan gain their independence from Great Britain on August 15.||1901-2000||international affairs||N.A.||N.A.|
|1948||The Berlin Blockade by the Soviet Union begins on June 24 and the Berlin Airlift commences two days later. On May 12, 1949, the Soviets end their blockade of Berlin.||1901-2000||international affairs||Germany||N.A.|
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is established in Washington, D.C. on April 4.
|1901-2000||international affairs||N.A.||District of Columbia|
|1949||The Communists defeat the Nationalists to take control over Mainland China. They declare the Peoples' Republic of China in Beijing on October 1.||1901-2000||international affairs||China||N.A.|
The seventeenth U.S. census reveals that on April 1 the nation's population is 150,697,361
|1950||The McCarran Internal Security Act is passed overwhelmingly by Congress despite President Truman's veto of the measure on September 22.||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||District of Columbia|
|1951||On February 27, the Twenty-second Amendment to the Constitution, which sets a two-term limit for U.S. Presidents, becomes law with its ratification by Minnesota.||1901-2000||constitutional amendments||United States||District of Columbia|
|1951||On April 11, President Truman fires General Douglas McArthur.||1901-2000||politics||United States||District of Columbia|
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are convicted of treason on March 29 and executed on June 19, 1953.
|1901-2000||national security||United States||New York|
Ralph Ellison (Oklahoma) publishes Invisible Man.
|1952||The U.S. explodes the first hydrogen bomb on November 1.||1901-2000||technology||United States||N.A.|
On November 4, General Dwight David Eisenhower (Kansas) becomes the thirty-fourth President of the U.S.
|1953||The Korean Armistice is signed on July 27 ending three years of fighting between United Nations forces and the North Korean and Chinese Armies.||1901-2000||international affairs||N.A.||N.A.|
|1954||The Army-McCarthy Hearings are held from April to June.||1901-2000||national security||United States||District of Columbia|
|1954||On May 17, the U.S. Supreme Court hands down its decision in Brown v. Board of Education||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||District of Columbia|
Tennessee Williams's Cat on a Hot Tin Roof is first performed on March 24.
|1955||On April 15, entrepreneur Ray Kroc opens the first McDonald's franchise restaurant in Des Plains, Illinois.||1901-2000||popular culture||United States||Illinois|
|1955||The Montgomery Bus Boycott begins on December 5.||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||Alabama|
The American Federation of Labor (AFL) merges with the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) on December 5.
|1901-2000||labor & unions||United States||New York|
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is founded under the leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King on January 10.
|1901-2000||civil rights||United States||Georgia|
|1957||The European Economic Community (European Common Market) is created by the Treaty of Rome on March 25.||1901-2000||international affairs||N.A.||N.A.|
|1957||The Little Rock School Desegregation Crisis begins on September 4. President Eisenhower calls in the 101st Airborne Division of the U.S. Army to protect the nine children attempting to integrate the school. Elements of the Division remain there until May 1958.||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||Arkansas|
|1958||The National Defense Education Act, which authorized federally supported loans and grants to college students, was signed into law by President Eisenhower on September 2.||1901-2000||education||United States||District of Columbia|
John Kenneth Galbraith (Massachusetts) publishes The Affluent Society.
|1959||On January 1, Revolutionary forces led by Fidel Castro come to power in Cuba.||1901-2000||international affairs||Cuba||N.A.|
|1959||On January 3, Alaska becomes the forty-ninth state.||1901-2000||statehood||United States||Alaska|
|1959||On August 21, Hawaii becomes the fiftieth state.||1901-2000||statehood||United States||Hawaii|
Sit-in demonstrations protesting racial segregation and discrimination begin in Greensboro, North Carolina on February 1 and sweep across the South.
|1901-2000||civil rights||United States||North Carolina|
The eighteenth U.S. census reveals that the nation's population on April 1 is 179,323,175
Massachusetts Senator John Kennedy defeats Vice President Richard Nixon on November 8 in one of the closest elections in U.S. history. The senator becomes the thirty-fifth President of the United States.
|1961||On March 1, the Peace Corps is established by President John F. Kennedy by executive order.||1901-2000||international affairs||United States||District of Columbia|
|1961||On March 29, the Twenty-third Amendment to the Constitution, which grants Washington, D.C., electoral votes, becomes law with its ratification by Ohio.||1901-2000||constitutional amendments||United States||District of Columbia|
|1961||The unsuccessful Bay of Pigs invasion takes place in Cuba between April 17 and April 20.||1901-2000||international affairs||Cuba||N.A.|
|1961||The East Germans initiate the construction of the Berlin Wall on August 13.||1901-2000||international affairs||Germany||N.A.|
Rachel Carson's Silent Spring was released on September 27. The book is widely credited with helping to launch the environmental movement.
|1901-2000||the environment||United States||New York|
|1962||The Cuban Missile Crisis runs from October 14 to November 20.||1901-2000||national security||United States||N.A.|
On February 19, Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique is released. The book would initiate the second wave of feminism and eventually sell over three million copies.
|1901-2000||women's rights||United States||New York|
|1963||Martin Luther King delivers his "I Have a Dream" Speech at the March on Washington, August 28.||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||District of Columbia|
|1963||On November 22, President John Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas. Vice-President Lyndon Baines Johnson of Texas becomes the thirty-sixth President of the U.S.||1901-2000||violence & terrorism||United States||Texas|
|1963||The Clean Air Act is signed by President Johnson on December 17.||1901-2000||the environment||United States||District of Columbia|
On January 23, the Twenty-fourth Amendment to the Constitution, which abolishes the poll tax in federal elections, becomes law with its ratification by South Dakota.
|1901-2000||constitutional amendments||United States||South Dakota|
On February 9, the British rock group, the Beatles, appear on the Ed Sullivan Show.
|1901-2000||popular culture||United States||New York|
|1964||The "Freedom Summer" voter registration campaign begins in Mississippi on June 1.||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||Mississippi|
|1964||The Civil Rights Act is passed by Congress on July 2.||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||District of Columbia|
|1964||Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on August 7 escalating the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.||1901-2000||war||United States||District of Columbia|
|1964||Congress passes the Economic Opportunity Act on August 20.||1901-2000||social reform||United States||District of Columbia|
|1964||On October 11, China explodes its first atomic bomb.||1901-2000||international affairs||China||N.A.|
|1964||On December 10, 35-year-old Martin Luther King becomes the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||N.A.|
|1965||The Medicare Act is signed into law on July 30.||1901-2000||health & medicine||United States||District of Columbia|
|1965||The Voting Rights Act is passed by Congress on August 4.||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||District of Columbia|
|1965||The Watts Riot (Los Angeles) occurs from August 11 to August 15.||1901-2000||violence & terrorism||United States||California|
|1965||After a three year organizing campaign by Cesar Chavez and Delores Huerta, mostly Mexican American farm workers, Chavez leads the first United Farm Workers grape strike on September 8 at Delano, California.||1901-2000||agriculture||United States||California|
|1965||The National Foundations for the Arts and Humanities (NEA and NEH) are created by Congress, November 23.||1901-2000||education||United States||District of Columbia|
|1966||The National Organization for Women (NOW) is founded on June 30, in Washington, D.C.||1901-2000||women's rights||United States||District of Columbia|
|1966||President Lyndon Johnson signs the Freedom of Information Act on July 4.||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||District of Columbia|
On February 10, the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution, which defines presidential disability procedures, becomes law with its ratification by Nevada.
|1901-2000||constitutional amendments||United States||Nevada|
|1967||The Six-Day War between Israel and Egypt occurs between June 5 and June 10 and results in an easy victory for the Israelis.||1901-2000||international affairs||N.A.||N.A.|
|1968||Dr. Martin Luther King is assassinated on April 4 in Memphis, Tennessee.||1901-2000||violence & terrorism||United States||Tennessee|
|1968||On April 11, President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968 which bans housing discrimination.||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||District of Columbia|
|1968||U.S. Senator and Presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy is assassinated in Los Angeles on June 5.||1901-2000||violence & terrorism||United States||California|
|1968||Over 400 feminists stage the first major protests of the Miss America pageant at Atlantic City on September 7.||1901-2000||women's rights||United States||New Jersey|
Former Vice President Richard Nixon (California) defeats both Hubert Humphrey (Minnesota) and George Wallace (Alabama) for the Presidency on November 5 to become the thirty-seventh President of the US.
|1969||The Stonewall Inn Riot in New York City on June 28 intensifies the struggle for Gay rights.||1901-2000||civil rights||United States||New York|
|1969||U.S. astronauts, led by Neil Armstrong, land on the moon on July 20.||1901-2000||science & technology||United States||N.A.|
|1969||On August 15-17, the Woodstock Music Festival draws 400,000 fans to a farm in upstate New York.||1901-2000||popular culture||United States||New York|
The nineteenth U.S. census reveals the nation's population on April 1 is 203,302,032.
|1970||Kent State and Jackson State Killings of College Students by National Guardsmen and Police on May 4 and May 14, respectively.||1901-2000||violence & terrorism||United States||Ohio|
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was founded on December 3.
|1901-2000||the environment||United States||District of Columbia|
|1971||The first of the Pentagon Papers are published by the New York Times on June 13.||1901-2000||national security||United States||New York|
On July 1, the Twenty-sixth Amendment to the Constitution, which lowers the voting age to 18, becomes law with its ratification by Oklahoma.
|1901-2000||constitutional amendments||United States||Oklahoma|
|1972||President Richard Nixon visits China between February 21 and February 28, initiating the normalization of relations between the nations.||1901-2000||international affairs||China||N.A.|
|1972||The Equal Rights Amendment is passed by Congress on March 22 but is never ratified by the required number of states.||1901-2000||constitutional amendments||United States||District of Columbia|
|1973||U.S. Supreme Court hands down the Roe v. Wade decision on January 22 which legalizes abortion.||1901-2000||law||United States||District of Columbia|
|1973||The Treaty of Paris signed on January 27 creates a cease-fire in Vietnam and initiates the U.S. withdrawal from that nation.||1901-2000||international affairs||N.A.||N.A.|
|1973||On May 17, 1973 the U.S. Senate begins televised Watergate Hearings.||1901-2000||politics||United States||District of Columbia|
|1973||Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns on October 10 and President Nixon appoints Michigan Congressman Gerald Ford as his replacement.||1901-2000||politics||United States||District of Columbia|
|1973||OPEC begins an oil embargo against Western industrialized nations on October 17. It remains in effect until March 17, 1974.||1901-2000||international affairs||N.A.||N.A.|
|1973||The Endangered Species Act is passed on December 28.||1901-2000||the environment||United States||District of Columbia|
|1974||On July 30, the House Judiciary Committee votes to impeach President Richard Nixon.||1901-2000||politics||United States||District of Columbia|
|1974||President Richard Nixon resigns on August 8. Vice President Gerald Ford of Michigan becomes the nation's thirty-eight President on August 9.||1901-2000||politics||United States||District of Columbia|
|1975||Microsoft, eventually the world's largest software company, is founded on April 4 in Albuquerque, New Mexico by Bill Gates and Paul Allen.||1901-2000||science & technology||United States||New Mexico|
Former Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter is elected the thirty-ninth President of the United States on Nov. 2.
The Apple II computer is introduced on June 5 and initiates the rise of the desktop computer.
|1901-2000||science & technology||United States||California|
Camp David Accord between Egypt and Israel on September 17 leads to a period of peace between the nations that continues until the present day.
The twentieth U.S. census reveals that the nation's population on April 1 is 226,545,805.
On November 4, former California Governor Ronald Reagan defeats incumbent President Jimmy Carter to become the fortieth President of the United States.
|1981||On March 31, President Ronald Reagan survives an assassination attempt by John Hinckley Jr. in Washington, D.C.||1901-2000||violence & terrorism||United States||District of Columbia|
On September 25, Sandra Day O'Connor becomed the first woman justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. She is appointed by President Ronald Reagan.
|1901-2000||women's rights||United States||District of Columbia|
|1981||The Economic Recovery Act signed into law by President Reagan on August 13, reduces top federal income tax rates from 70% to 50%. A second tax reform act in 1986 further reduces the top bracket to 28%.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1983||On March 23, President Reagan announces the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI missile defense system.||1901-2000||national security||United States||District of Columbia|
|1984||The AIDS virus is discovered on April 23. There are 3,300 deaths from the disease by the end of the year.||1901-2000||health & medicine||N.A.||N.A.|
On July 12, Democratic presidential nominee Walter Mondale (Minnesota) chooses New York Congresswoman Geraldine Ferraro as his vice presidential running mate. Ferraro becomes the first woman and the first Italian American to appear on a major party ticket.
|1984||The Soviet Union boycotts the Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.||1901-2000||international affairs||United States||California|
On January 28, the Space Shuttle Challenger explodes shortly after lift off from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
|1901-2000||science & technology||United States||Florida|
On November 3, the Iran-Contra affair, an elaborate arms-for-hostages deal orchestrated by the Reagan Administration involving the Israelis, Iranians, and the Contras (anti-Communist guerillas in Central America), is revealed in a Lebanese Magazine.
|1901-2000||international affairs||N.A.||District of Columbia|
|1987||On October 19, the U.S. Stock Market plunges 508 points in one day.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||New York|
On November 8, Vice President George Herbert Walker Bush of Texas defeats Governor Michael Dukakis of Massachusetts to become the forty-first President of the United States.
|1989||Beginning with Poland on March 9, most Eastern European nations oust communist governments.||1901-2000||international affairs||N.A.||N.A.|
|1989||On June 3 and June 4, Chinese government suppresses prodemocracy demonstrators in Tiananmen Square, Beijing, and in the process kill nearly 800 protesters.||1901-2000||international affairs||China||N.A.|
|1989||The Berlin Wall is torn down on November 9. East and West Germany reunite the following year.||1901-2000||international affairs||Germany||N.A.|
The twenty-first U.S. census reveals that on April 1 the nation's population is 248,709,873
|1990||The Americans with Disabilities Act is signed into law on July 26 by President George Herbert Walker Bush.||1901-2000||health & medicine||United States||District of Columbia|
|1990||On December 25, Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Tim Berners-Lee makes the first successful transmission of data between a computer client and server and thus launches the World Wide Web.||1901-2000||science & technology||United States||Massachusetts|
|1991||On October 23, U.S. Court of Appeals Judge Clarence Thomas is appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court after controversial confirmation process.||1901-2000||politics||United States||District of Columbia|
On May 7, the Twenty-seventh Amendment to the Constitution, which prohibits Congressional pay raises from taking effect until the next session, becomes law when it is ratified by New Jersey.
|1901-2000||constitutional amendments||United States||New Jersey|
On November 3, former Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton defeats President George H.W. Bush to become the forty-second President of the U.S.
|1993||Terrorists attack the World Trade Center in New York on February 26, killing seven people.||1901-2000||violence||United States||New York|
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between Canada, the United States, and Mexico, is signed into law by President Bill Clinton on December 8.
|1901-2000||the economy||N.A.||District of Columbia|
|1996||The Welfare Reform Act is signed into law by President Bill Clinton on August 22. The law ends lifetime welfare payments.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||District of Columbia|
|1997||On July 1, Great Britain turns over Hong Kong to Mainland China.||1901-2000||international affairs||N.A.||N.A.|
|1997||On July 4, the U.S. Spacecraft Pathfinder lands on Mars.||1901-2000||science & technology||United States||N.A.|
|1998||The Bill Clinton-Monica Lewinsky scandal becomes public on January 17. The House of Representatives votes to impeach President Clinton on December 19, but he is acquitted by the Senate on February 12, 1999.||1901-2000||politics||United States||District of Columbia|
On August 7, U.S. Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania are simultaneously bombed by terrorists, killing 224 people.
|1901-2000||violence & terrorism||N.A.||N.A.|
|1999||On November 30, over 40,000 demonstrators protested the World Trade Organization meeting in Seattle in what became the largest public demonstrations of the 1990s.||1901-2000||the economy||United States||Washington|
The twenty-second U.S. census reveals that the nation's population on April 1 is 281,421,906
|2000||On May 24, President Bill Clinton signs legislation normalizing trade relations with China.||1901-2000||international affairs||United States||District of Columbia|
On November 7, Vice President Al Gore wins the majority of the popular vote but Texas Governor George W. Bush wins the Electoral College to become the forty-third President of the U.S.