U.S. History Timeline 1801-1900

Year Body Era Subjects Country State
1801-1805 The United States engages in war with Tripoli in North Africa. 1801-1900 war United States N.A
1801 On February 11, a tie in the Electoral College throws the Presidential election into the U.S. House of Representatives where Thomas Jefferson (Virginia) defeats Aaron Burr (New York) on February 17 on the 36th ballot. 1801-1900 politics United States District of Columbia
1803 On February 23, the U.S. Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison establishes the precedent of judicial review of legislative action. 1801-1900 law United States District of Columbia
1803 On March 1, Ohio becomes the seventeenth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Ohio
1803 On April 30, the U.S. Congress approves the agreement that purchases Louisiana from France, nearly doubling the size of the nation. 1801-1900 territorial expansion United States Louisiana
1804 On January 1, Haiti becomes the second independent republic in the New World. 1801-1900 international affairs Haiti N.A.
1804 On February 23, Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase is the first major officeholder to be impeached and removed from office. 1801-1900 politics United States District of Columbia
1804 On May 14, the Lewis and Clark Expedition begins in St. Louis. The explorers return to St. Louis on September 23, 1806. 1801-1900 territorial expansion United States N.A.
1805 On June 15, the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution, which reorders the presidential selection process, becomes law with its ratification by New Hampshire. 1801-1900 constitutional amendments United States N.A.
1806 Noah Webster publishes A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language in New Haven, Connecticut. 1801-1900 literature United States Connecticut
1807 On March 25, the British Parliament votes to end Great Britain's participation in the international slave trade. 1801-1900 international affairs England N.A.
1807 On August 7, Robert Fulton of New York develops the first steamboat. 1801-1900 transportation United States New York
1807 On September 1, Aaron Burr is acquitted of treason at his trial in Richmond, Virginia. 1801-1900 law United States Virginia
1808 On January 1, the United States terminates its participation in the international slave trade. 1801-1900 slavery United States N.A.
1808 On December 7, James Madison of Virginia is elected the fourth President of the United States. 1801-1900 politics United States Virginia
1810 The third U.S census reveals that the nation's population on August 6 is 7,239,881. 1801-1900 population United States N.A.
1810 On March 6, in Fletcher v. Peck the U.S. Supreme Court rules that it has the authority to declare state laws unconstitutional. 1801-1900 law United States District of Columbia
1811 The Battle of Tippecanoe in Indiana on November 7 makes General William Henry Harrison a national hero. 1801-1900 war United States Indiana
1811 On August 1, construction commences on the Cumberland Road linking Maryland to the Midwest. Construction stops at Vandalia, Illinois in 1838 when funding runs out. 1801-1900 transportation United States N.A.
1812 On April 30, Louisiana becomes the eighteenth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Louisiana
1812 On June 12, the United States declares war on Great Britain thus initiating the War of 1812. 1801-1900 war United States N.A.
1812-1813 American invasions of Canada fail. 1801-1900 war United States N.A.
1814 On August 24, British forces capture and burn Washington, D.C. 1801-1900 war United States District of Columbia
1814 The Treaty of Ghent is signed on December 24, ending the War of 1812. 1801-1900 war N.A N.A.
1815 General Andrew Jackson leads American forces which defeat the British at the Battle of New Orleans on January 8. The battle takes place after the war has officially ended. 1801-1900 war United States Louisiana
1816

On December 4, James Monroe of Virginia is elected the fifth President of the United States.

1801-1900 politics United States Virginia
1816 On December 11, Indiana becomes the nineteenth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Indiana
1816 The American Colonization Society is founded in Washington, D.C. on December 28. It will settle former slaves in the West African colony of Liberia which it establishes in 1822. 1801-1900 slavery United States District of Columbia
1817

Construction begins on the Erie Canal on July 4. Construction is complete on October 25, 1825.

1801-1900 transportation United States New York
1817 On December 10, Mississippi becomes the twentieth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Mississippi
1818 On May 28, General Andrew Jackson invades Spanish-controlled Florida. 1801-1900 war United States Florida
1818 On December 3, Illinois becomes the twenty-first state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Illinois
1819 The Panic of 1819 initiates a major economic recession. Prosperity returns in 1824. 1801-1900 the economy United States N.A.
1819 Spain cedes Florida to the United States in the Adams-Onis Treaty signed in Washington, D.C. on February 22. 1801-1900 territorial expansion United States Florida
1819 On December 14, Alabama becomes the twenty-second state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Alabama
1820 The Missouri Compromise over Slavery is enacted by the U.S. Congress on March 3. 1801-1900 slavery United States District of Columbia
1820 On March 15, Maine becomes the twenty-third state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Maine
1820 The fourth U.S census reveals that on August 7 the nation's population is 9,638,453. 1801-1900 population United States N.A.
1821 Emma Willard establishes the Troy (New York) Female Seminary on May 9. 1801-1900 education United States New York
1821 On August 10, Missouri becomes the twenty-fourth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Missouri
1821 In December the first American settlers organized by Stephen Austin arrive in Texas, settling in what is now Brazoria County. 1801-1900 territorial expansion United States Texas
1822 Denmark Vesey organizes a slave rebellion conspiracy in Charleston, South Carolina which is to commence on Bastille Day, July 14. 1801-1900 slavery United States South Carolina
1823 The Monroe Doctrine is proclaimed by President James Monroe in Washington on December 2. 1801-1900 international affairs United States District of Columbia
1824 The Bureau of Indian Affairs is established in Washington, D.C. on March 11. 1801-1900 Native Americans United States District of Columbia
1825 In January the New Harmony commune is founded in Indiana by Scottish industrialist Robert Owen. 1801-1900 social reform United States Indiana
1825 Due to the absence of an electoral vote majority, the House of Representatives elects John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts as the sixth President of the United States on February 9. 1801-1900 politics United States District of Columbia
1826 The American Temperance Society is founded in Boston on February 13. 1801-1900 social reform United States Massachusetts
1828

On December 2, Andrew Jackson of Tennessee is elected the seventh President of the United States.

1801-1900 politics United States Tennessee
1830 On April 6, Joseph Smith establishes the Church of Latter Day Saints (Mormon Church) in Upstate New York. 1801-1900 religion United States New York
1830 The Indian Removal Act, passed by Congress on May 26, sets up the Trail of Tears, the forced removal of over 70,000 Native Americans from Georgia, North Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Florida between 1830 and 1839 to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). 1801-1900 Native Americans United States N.A.
1830 The fifth U.S census reveals that the nation's population on June 1 is 12,866,020. 1801-1900 population United States N.A.
1831-1832 French author Alexis de Tocqueville tours the United States and eventually writes Democracy in America. 1801-1900 literature United States N.A.
1831

On January 1, William Lloyd Garrison of Boston publishes the first issue of The Liberator in Boston, Massachusetts.  It will soon become the leading anti-slavery newspaper in the U.S.

1801-1900 slavery United States Massachusetts
1831 The Nat Turner Slave Rebellion takes place in Virginia on August 21-22. 1801-1900 slavery United States Virginia
1831-1832 The Virginia Assembly debates slavery and emancipation but resolves to keep the slave system. 1801-1900 slavery United States Virginia
1833 On August 1, Great Britain abolishes slavery throughout its empire. 1801-1900 international affairs England N.A.
1833 Oberlin College, which opens on September 2, becomes the first U.S. institution of higher education to admit women. 1801-1900 education United States Ohio
1834 On August 11, the first anti-Catholic riot takes place in Boston. 1801-1900 violence United States Massachusetts
1835 The Democratic Party holds its second national convention at the Fourth Presbyterian Church in Baltimore on May 20-22. The convention nominates Vice President Martin Van Buren of New York to be its presidential candidate the following year. This is the first time a presidential nominee is chosen at a general party convention. 1801-1900 politics United States Maryland
1836 The Battle of the Alamo takes place February 23 to March 6. 1801-1900 war United States Texas
1836 In the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, Texas wins independence from Mexico. 1801-1900 war United States Texas
1836 On May 26, the U.S. House of Representatives passes the "Gag Resolution" which prevents the discussion of anti-slavery petitions in Congress. 1801-1900 slavery United States District of Columbia
1836 On June 15, Arkansas becomes the twenty-fifth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Arkansas
1836

On December 7, Martin Van Buren of New York is elected the eighth President of the United States.

1801-1900 politics United States New York
1837 On January 26, Michigan becomes the twenty-sixth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Michigan
1837 The Panic of 1837 initiates a five-year economic depression. 1801-1900 the economy United States N.A.
1837 John Deere develops the first commercially successful steel plow at his Grand Detour, Illinois factory. 1801-1900 agriculture United States Illinois
1837 On November 7, an anti-abolitionist mob kills abolitionist Elijah Lovejoy in Alton, Illinois. 1801-1900 slavery United States Illinois
1840

On March 31, President Martin Van Buren establishes by executive order the ten-hour day for federal employees.

1801-1900 labor & unions United States District of Columbia
1840 The first national convention of the antislavery Liberty Party takes place in Arcade, New York on April 1. 1801-1900 politics United States New York
1840 The sixth census reveals that on June 1 the nation's population is 17,069,453. 1801-1900 population United States N.A.
1840

On December 2, William Henry Harrison of Indiana defeats incumbent President Martin Van Buren of New York for the Presidency. Harrison, the ninth President, becomes the first member of the Whig Party to be elected to the nation's highest office and the first president to die in office.

1801-1900 politics United States Indiana
1841

On April 6, John Tyler of Virginia becomes the first Vice President to become President following the death of President Harrison on April 4.

1801-1900 politics United States Virginia
1842 In March the Massachusetts Judicial Supreme Court declares labor unions legal in Commonwealth v. Hunt. 1801-1900 labor & unions United States Massachusetts
1843 In January, Dorothea Dix petitions the Massachusetts Assembly on behalf of the mentally ill. 1801-1900 social reform United States Massachusetts
1844 A series of anti-Catholic riots take place in Philadelphia between May 6 and July 7. 1801-1900 religion United States Pennsylvania
1844 U.S. diplomat Caleb Cushing establishes the Treaty of Wanghia, the first formal agreement between China and the United States, on May 3. 1801-1900 international affairs China N.A.
1844 On May 24, Samuel Morse opens the first commercial telegraph line in Washington, D.C. 1801-1900 communication United States District of Columbia
1844

Running on a platform that advocates "Manifest Destiny," meaning the expansion of the United States from the Atlantic to the Pacific, James K. Polk of Tennessee wins the Presidential election on December 4, becoming the eleventh President of the United States.

1801-1900 politics United States Tennessee
1845-1849 The potato famine in Ireland leads thousands of Irish emigrants to settle in the United States. 1801-1900 international affairs Ireland N.A.
1845-1849 Former slave Frederick Douglass (Massachusetts) publishes his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass in Boston. 1801-1900 literature United States Massachusetts
1845 On March 3, Florida becomes the twenty-seventh state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Florida
1845 The United States annexes Texas on December 29 and on the same day Congress admits it to the Union as the twenty-eighth state. 1801-1900 territorial expansion United States Texas
1846 The Mexican War begins on April 25. 1801-1900 war United States N.A.
1846 On December 28, Iowa becomes the twenty-ninth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Iowa
1847 On April 5, the Mormon migration to Utah begins. Eventually 70,000 people will participate in this exodus to the Salt Lake Valley. 1801-1900 religion United States Utah
1848 The discovery of gold on January 24, at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California initiates the California Gold Rush which brings 100,000 people to the region by 1850. 1801-1900 the economy United States California
1848 The Mexican War ends on February 2, with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. That agreement gives the United States jurisdiction over nearly half of what was Mexico including the current states of California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah and part of Colorado. 1801-1900 territorial expansion United States N.A.
1848 On May 29, Wisconsin becomes the thirtieth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Wisconsin
1848 Democratic revolutions collapse in various German states leading to a mass exodus of German emigrants to the United States. 1801-1900 immigration Germany N.A.
1848 The Seneca Falls (New York) Women's Rights Convention is held on July 19-20. 1801-1900 women's rights United States New York
1848 The Free Soil Party is organized in Buffalo, New York on August 10. 1801-1900 politics United States New York
1848

On November 7, Zachary Taylor of Louisiana is elected the twelfth President of the United States.

1801-1900 politics United States Louisiana
1849 In response to growing immigration, the Native American or Know-Nothing Party, which begins as the Order of the Star Spangled Banner, is founded in New York City. 1801-1900 immigration United States New York
1850

The Compromise of 1850 a series of five bills, is passed on September 9. The Compromise allows California to enter the Union as a free state, gives New Mexico Territory the option of allowing or outlawing slavery, and creates a new Fugitive Slave Law.

1801-1900 slavery United States District of Columbia
1850

Nathaniel Hawthorne (Massachusetts) publishes The Scarlet Letter.

1801-1900 literature United States Massachusetts
1850 The seventh U.S census reveals that the nation's population on June 1 is 23,191,876. 1801-1900 population United States N.A.
1850

On July 9, Millard Fillmore (New York) becomes the thirteenth President of the United States upon the death of President Zachary Taylor.

1801-1900 politics United States New York
1850 On September 9, California becomes the thirty-first state. 1801-1900 statehood United States California
1851

Herman Melville (New York) publishes Moby Dick.

1801-1900 literature United States New York
1852

Harriet Beecher Stowe (Ohio) publishes Uncle Tom's Cabin.

1801-1900 literature United States Ohio
1852

On November 2, Franklin Pierce (New Hampshire) is elected the fourteenth President of the United States.

1801-1900 politics United States New Hampshire
1854 The Republican Party is founded at Ripon, Wisconsin on March 20. 1801-1900 politics United States Wisconsin
1854

The Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repeals the Missouri Compromise of 1820, becomes law on May 30.

1801-1900 slavery United States District of Columbia
1854 The United State acquires the Gadsden Purchase from Mexico on June 8. 1801-1900 territorial expansion United States N.A.
1854 On July 14, Commodore Matthew C. Perry establishes diplomatic relations between the United States and Japan. 1801-1900 international affairs Japan N.A.
1854

The Ostend Manifesto written on October 18, proposes the U.S. seizure of Cuba.

1801-1900 international affairs Cuba District of Columbia
1855

Poet Walt Whitman (New York) publishes Leaves of Grass.

1801-1900 literature United States New York
1855 On October 14, former U.S. General William Walker leads a mercenary force of 150 Americans who join with local rebels to conquer Nicaragua. Walker serves as president from July 12, 1856 to May 1, 1857. He legalizes slavery there. 1801-1900 international affairs Nicaragua N.A.
1855 "Bleeding Kansas," the violent conflict between pro- and anti-slavery forces begins on November 21 with the death of a free-soiler by a pro-slavery advocate. The violence will continue until 1859 and result in the death of 56 people. 1801-1900 slavery United States Kansas
1856

On November 4, James Buchanan (Pennsylvania) is elected the fifteenth President of the United States.

1801-1900 politics United States Pennsylvania
1857 On March 6, the U.S. Supreme Court hands down the Dred Scott decision. 1801-1900 law United States District of Columbia
1857 The Panic of 1857 initiates another major downturn in the U.S. economy. The recession that follows will last for two years. 1801-1900 the economy United States N.A.
1858 On May 11, Minnesota becomes the thirty-second state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Minnesota
1858 On August 16, Cyrus Field completes the first transatlantic cable linking Ireland and Newfoundland, Canada. 1801-1900 communication N.A. N.A.
1858

The Lincoln-Douglas Debates between former Illinois Congressman Abraham Lincoln and Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas take place in seven towns between August 21, and October 15.

1801-1900 politics United States Illinois
1859 On February 14, Oregon becomes the thirty-third state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Oregon
1859 English naturalist Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species. 1801-1900 science & technology England N.A.
1859 On October 16, John Brown and twenty followers seize the Federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (Now West Virginia). They are captured two days later by U.S. Marines led by Colonel Robert E. Lee. 1801-1900 slavery United States Virginia
1860 On April 30, the Pony Express begins mail service between St. Joseph, Missouri and Sacramento, California. 1801-1900 communication United States N.A.
1860 The eighth U.S census reveals that the nation's population on June 1 is 31,443,321. 1801-1900 population United States N.A.
1860

On November 6, Abraham Lincoln of Illinois wins the Presidency over three other candidates to become the first Republican to hold that office.

1801-1900 politics United States Illinois
1860 South Carolina secedes from the Union on December 20. 1801-1900 politics United States South Carolina
1861 Between January 9 and February 1, six other states: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas, also secede from the Union. 1801-1900 politics United States N.A.
1861 On January 29, Kansas becomes the thirty-fourth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Kansas
1861 The Confederate government is formed in Montgomery, Alabama on February 8 following a two-day constitutional convention. Jefferson Davis is chosen as temporary President of the Confederate States of America. 1801-1900 politics United States Alabama
1861 On April 12, Fort Sumter is fired upon initiating the Civil War. 1801-1900 war United States South Carolina
1861 Between April 17 and June 8, four other states: Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee, secede from the Union. 1801-1900 politics United States N.A.
1861 First Battle of Bull Run (Virginia) is on July 21. 1801-1900 war United States Virginia
1861

On October 24, the first transcontinental telegraph is completed as east and west extending lines meet at Salt Lake City, Utah Territory.

1801-1900 communication United States Utah
1862

The Naval Battle of the Merrimack (the Virginia) and the Monitor at Hampton Roads, Virginia takes place on March 9. It is the most important naval battle of the Civil War.

1801-1900 war United States Virginia
1862 The Battle of Shiloh (Tennessee) takes place on April 6-7. 1801-1900 war United States Tennessee
1862

On April 16, The Confederate Congress enacts military conscription.

1801-1900 war United States Virginia
1862 On April 29, the combined forces of the U.S. Army and Navy capture New Orleans, the largest city in the Confederacy. 1801-1900 war United States Louisiana
1862 On May 20, President Abraham Lincoln signs the Homestead Act into law. 1801-1900 settlement United States District of Columbia
1862 On July 1, President Abraham Lincoln signs into law the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 which authorizes the construction of a transcontinental railroad. Construction begins near Omaha, Nebraska Territory, on December 1, 1863. 1801-1900 transportation United States District of Columbia
1862 On July 2, President Abraham Lincoln signs the Morrill Act into law. The Act provides for the sale of public lands to support higher education. 1801-1900 settlement United States District of Columbia
1862 The Second Battle of Bull Run (Virginia) takes place on August 28-30. 1801-1900 war United States Virginia
1862 The Battle of Antietam (Maryland) takes place on September 17. 1801-1900 war United States Maryland
1862 President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation on September 22. 1801-1900 slavery United States District of Columbia
1862 The Battle of Fredericksburg (Virginia) takes place on Dec. 11-15. 1801-1900 war United States Virginia
1863 On January 1, the Emancipation Proclamation takes effect. 1801-1900 slavery United States N.A.
1863 On January 10, the world's first subway system, the London Underground, opens in that city. 1801-1900 international affairs England N.A.
1863 On March 3, the U.S. Congress enacts a general military conscription law. 1801-1900 war United States District of Columbia
1863 The Battle of Chancellorsville (Virginia) takes place on May 2-4. 1801-1900 war United States Virginia
1863 The Fall of Port Hudson (Louisiana) to Union forces occurs on May 27. 1801-1900 war United States Louisiana
1863 On June 20, West Virginia becomes the thirty-fifth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States West Virginia
1863 The Battle of Gettysburg (Pennsylvania) takes place on July 1-3. 1801-1900 war United States Pennsylvania
1863 The fall of Vicksburg, Mississippi on July 4 to Union forces means the entire Mississippi River is controlled by the United States effectively separating Arkansas, Western Louisiana, and Texas from the rest of the Confederacy. 1801-1900 war United States Mississippi
1863 The New York City Draft Riots erupt on July 13 and continue until July 16. An estimated 2,000 people are killed before U.S. troops restored order. This is the worst urban insurrection in the nation's history. 1801-1900 violence United States New York
1863

In December President Lincoln announces his "10 percent" Reconstruction Plan which allows states in rebellion to reenter the Union if 10% of its 1860 voters signs a loyalty oath and pledge to accept emancipation.

1801-1900 politics United States District of Columbia
1864 Union General Ulysses S. Grant confronts Confederate General Robert E. Lee for the first time in the Battle of the Wilderness in Virginia on May 5-7. 1801-1900 war United States Virginia
1864 General William Tecumseh Sherman's March Through Georgia begins at Chattanooga on May 6, and results in the capture of Atlanta on September 7. His Army of 65,000 proceeds south to Savannah on the Atlantic Ocean, arriving there on December 22. 1801-1900 war United States Georgia
1864 The Battle of Cold Harbor, Virginia tales place on June 3. 1801-1900 war United States Virginia
1864 Napoleon III of France installs Archduke Maximilian as Emperor of Mexico on June 10. 1801-1900 international affairs Mexico N.A.
1864 On October 31, Nevada becomes the thirty-sixth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Nevada
1865 On March 3, the Freedman's Bureau is created by Congress. 1801-1900 social reform United States District of Columbia
1865 On April 9, General Robert E. Lee Surrenders to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox, Virginia. 1801-1900 war United States Virginia
1865

President Lincoln is assassinated on April 14 in Washington, D.C.. The following day Vice President Andrew Johnson (Tennessee) becomes the seventeenth U.S. President.

1801-1900 violence United States District of Columbia
1865 On November 25, Mississippi enacts the first post-Civil War Black Codes. 1801-1900 civil rights United States Mississippi
1865

On December 6, the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which outlaws slavery, becomes law with its ratification by Georgia.

1801-1900 constitutional amendments United States Georgia
1866

The U.S. Civil Rights Act becomes law on April 9 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson.

1801-1900 civil rights United States District of Columbia
1866 On August 20, the National Labor Union is organized in Baltimore. 1801-1900 labor & unions United States Maryland
1866 The Ku Klux Klan is founded in Pulaski, Tennessee on December 24. 1801-1900 violence United States Tennessee
1867 On March 1, Nebraska becomes the thirty-seventh state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Nebraska
1867 Congress passes the first of the Reconstruction Acts on March 2. 1801-1900 civil rights United States District of Columbia
1867 On March 30, the United States purchases Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million. 1801-1900 territorial expansion United States Alaska
1868 On March 2, President Johnson is impeached by the U.S. House of Representatives and acquitted by the U.S. Senate on May 16. 1801-1900 politics United States District of Columbia
1868

On July 9, the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which guarantees the rights of citizens and makes citizens of ex-slaves, becomes law with its ratification by South Carolina.

1801-1900 constitutional amendments United States South Carolina
1868

On November 3, Ulysses S. Grant of Illinois is elected the eighteenth President of the United States.

1801-1900 politics United States Illinois
1868

On November 3, John Willis Menard of Louisiana becomes the first African American elected to Congress.

1801-1900 politics United States Louisiana
1869

The Union Pacific Railroad, which began construction at Omaha, Nebraska and the Central Pacific, which first broke ground at Sacramento (both in 1863), meet at Promontory Summit, Utah Territory on May 10.

1801-1900 transportation United States Utah
1869 The National Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) is founded on May 15 in New York City by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. 1801-1900 women's rights United States New York
1869 On December 10, Wyoming Territory becomes the first state or territory to extend voting rights to all women. 1801-1900 civil rights United States Wyoming
1870 On January 10, John D. Rockefeller and four partners found the Standard Oil Company in Cleveland. 1801-1900 the economy United States Ohio
1870

On February 3, the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which extends voting rights to black males, becomes law with its ratification by Iowa.

1801-1900 civil rights United States Iowa
1870 On February 10, the Utah Territorial Legislature approves full suffrage for women. 1801-1900 civil rights United States Utah
1870 The ninth U.S census reveals that the nation's population on June 1 is 39,818,449. 1801-1900 population United States N.A.
1872

The Freedman's Bureau is terminated on June 10.

1801-1900 social reform United States District of Columbia
1872 The Credit Mobilier Scandal is first exposed by the Hartford Daily Courrant on September 26. 1801-1900 politics United States Connecticut
1874 The Women's Christian Temperance Union (WTCU) is organized in Cleveland in November. 1801-1900 social reform United States Ohio
1875 The Civil Rights Act of 1875 becomes law on March 1 with President Ulysses Grant's signature. 1801-1900 civil rights United States District of Columbia
1876 On August 1, Colorado becomes the thirty-eighth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Colorado
1876

The results of the November 7 election between Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) and Samuel Tilden (Democrat) are contested. The uncertainty leads to a political compromise which gives Hayes the Presidency with his promise to end Reconstruction in the South.

1801-1900 politics United States District of Columbia
1876

On Nov. 7, Romualdo Pacheco, a former Republican Governor of California, becomes the first Latino elected to Congress.

1801-1900 politics United States California
1877

On March 4, Rutherford B. Hayes becomes the nineteenth President of the United States.

1801-1900 politics United States District of Columbia
1877 Reconstruction ends with the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Louisiana and South Carolina in April. 1801-1900 politics United States N.A.
1877

A nationwide railroad strike begins in Martinsburg, West Virginia on July 14 against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and ends 45 days later when federal troops are used against the striking workers.

1801-1900 labor & unions United States West Virginia
1879

Henry George (California) publishes Progress and Poverty.

1801-1900 literature United States California
1880 The tenth U.S census reveals that on June 1 the nation's population is 50,189,209. 1801-1900 population United States N.A.
1880

On November 2, John A. Garfield of Ohio is elected the twentieth President of the U.S. but is assassinated the following year. Vice President Governor Chester A. Arthur, the former Governor of New York, becomes the twenty-first President.

1801-1900 violence United States Ohio
1881 Clara Barton founds the American Red Cross in Washington, D.C. on May 21. 1801-1900 social reform United States District of Columbia
1881 Booker T. Washington founds Tuskegee Institute in Alabama on July 4. 1801-1900 education United States Alabama
1882 The Chinese Exclusion Act was signed into law by President Chester A. Arthur on May 8. 1801-1900 immigration United States District of Columbia
1883 The Pendleton Act was signed into law on January 16 by President Chester A. Author. The Act creates the U.S. Civil Service Commission. 1801-1900 politics United States District of Columbia
1883 On October 16, the U.S. Supreme Court in the Civil Rights Cases pronounces the 1875 Civil Rights Act unconstitutional. 1801-1900 law United States District of Columbia
1883 On November 23, Washington Territorial William Newell signs a law that grants women the right to vote. On February 3, 1887, however, the Washington Territorial Supreme Court overturns the law in its decision in Harland v. Washington. 1801-1900 women United States Washington
1883 The Brooklyn Bridge is opened to the public on May 24. 1801-1900 transportation United States New York
1883 The Metropolitan Opera House opens in New York on October 22. 1801-1900 popular culture United States New York
1884

Mark Twain (Missouri) publishes The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

1801-1900 literature United States Missouri
1884 Architect William LeBaron Jenney designs the first U.S. skyscraper, the ten story Home Insurance Building, in Chicago. Construction begins on May 1. The building is completed in the autumn of 1885. 1801-1900 science & technology United States Illinois
1884

Grover Cleveland (New York) is elected the twenty-second President of the United States on November 4.

1801-1900 politics United States New York
1886 On December 8, the American Federation of Labor (AF of L) is established in New York. 1801-1900 labor & unions United States New York
1886 The Statute of Liberty is dedicated on October 28 in a ceremony led by U.S. President Grover Cleveland. 1801-1900 popular culture United States New York
1887 On March 3, the U.S. Congress passes the Edmunds-Tucker Act which disenfranchises all Utah women. 1801-1900 women United States District of Columbia
1887 The American Protective Association (APA) is formed on March 13 in Clinton, Iowa by Attorney Henry F. Bowers. The APA becomes the leading Anti-Catholic organization of the era. 1801-1900 religion United States Iowa
1888

On November 6, Benjamin Harrison of Indiana is elected the twenty-third President of the United States.

1801-1900 politics United States Indiana
1889 On September 18, Jane Addams and Ellen Starr Gates found Hull House in Chicago. Hull House is the first settlement house in the U.S. 1801-1900 social reform United States Illinois
1889 On November 2, North Dakota becomes the thirty-ninth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States North Dakota
1889 On November 2, South Dakota becomes the fortieth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States South Dakota
1889 On November 8, Montana becomes the forty-first state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Montana
1889 On November 11, Washington becomes the forty-second state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Washington
1890 The U.S. Congress creates the first annual Billion Dollar budget for the U.S. government. 1801-1900 government United States District of Columbia
1890

The eleventh U.S. census reveals that the nation's population on June 1 is 62,947,714.

1801-1900 population United States N.A.
1890 The Sherman Anti-Trust Act is signed into law by President Benjamin Harrison on July 2. 1801-1900 law United States District of Columbia
1890 On July 3, Idaho becomes the forty-third state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Idaho
1890 On July 10, Wyoming becomes the forty-fourth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Wyoming
1891 Basketball is invented by James Naismith in Springfield, Massachusetts in December. 1801-1900 popular culture United States Massachusetts
1892 In April the Coeur d'Alene (Idaho) silver miner's strike begins. 1801-1900 labor & unions United States Idaho
1892

On May 28, conservationist John Muir launches the Sierra Club in San Francisco.  It will eventually have over 1.4 million members, making it the largest of the environmental advocacy organizations in the U.S.

1801-1900 environment United States California
1892 On June 30, the Homestead Strike in Pennsylvania begins. It ends on July 6 when striking workers lose in their confrontation with private security agents hired by the Carnegie Corporation. 1801-1900 labor & unions United States Pennsylvania
1892

On November 8, People's (Populist) Party candidate James B. Weaver (Iowa) wins twenty-two electoral votes but former President Grover Cleveland (Democrat) defeats both Weaver and Republican President Benjamin Harrison to win the presidency. Cleveland thus serves as both the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President.

1801-1900 politics United States District of Columbia
1892

On November 8, Charles Curtis of Kansas becomes the first person of Native American ancestry to be elected to Congress. Curtis will serve in the House of Representatives until 1906 when he is elected to the Senate where he will serve until 1929. On November 7, 1928, Curtis is elected Vice President of the U.S., when his running mate, Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover is elected President.

1801-1900 politics United States Kansas
1893 The Depression of 1893 begins a five-year economic downturn. 1801-1900 the economy United States N.A.
1893 The World's Columbian Exposition is held in Chicago between May 1 and October 30. 1801-1900 popular culture United States Illinois
1893 The Anti-Saloon League is formed in Oberlin, Ohio on May 24. 1801-1900 social reform United States Ohio
1893 The Yale-Princeton Thanksgiving Day (November 30) football game in New York City draws 40,000 fans. 1801-1900 popular culture United States New York
1893 On November 7, Colorado male voters approve woman suffrage by referendum. 1801-1900 women's rights United States Colorado
1895

Investment Bankers J.P. Morgan and August Belmont lend $65 million to the U.S. Government.

1801-1900 the economy United States New York
1895 On November 5, Utah adopts a new constitution which includes a woman suffrage provision. 1801-1900 women's rights United States Utah
1896 On January 4, Utah becomes the forty-fifth state. 1801-1900 statehood United States Utah
1896 The U.S. Supreme Court in its Plessy v. Ferguson decision on May 18 establishes the separate but equal doctrine which allows racial segregation across the nation. 1801-1900 law United States District of Columbia
1896

On November 3, William McKinley of Ohio becomes the twenty-fifth President of the United States.

1801-1900 politics United States Ohio
1896 On November 3, Idaho adopts a constitutional amendment extending suffrage to women and making it the fourth state to allow women to vote. 1801-1900 women's rights United States Idaho
1898

Charlotte Perkins Gilman (California) publishes Women and Economics.

1801-1900 literature United States California
1898

The Spanish American War begins on April 25 and ends on August 12. The war is fought mainly in Cuba and the Philippines. Puerto Rico and the Philippines become possessions of the United States as a consequence of the War.

1801-1900 war United States N.A.
1898 On July 7, President William McKinley signs the Newlands Resolution which annexes the Republic of Hawaii to the United States. 1801-1900 territorial expansion United States Hawaii
1898 On December 10, the Treaty of Paris officially ends the Spanish American War. Spain cedes Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the U.S. Cuba becomes a U.S. Protectorate. 1801-1900 territorial expansion N.A. N.A.
1899 On January 17, Wake Island is annexed to the United States. 1801-1900 territorial expansion United States N.A.
1899 On December 2, the U.S. signs the 1899 Treaty of Berlin with Germany and Great Britain and acquires control of the islands that will become American Samoa. 1801-1900 territorial expansion N.A. N.A.
1900

The twelfth U.S. census reveals that on June 1 the nation's population is 76,212,168.

1801-1900 population United States N.A.
1900

Theodore Dreiser (Indiana) publishes Sister Carrie.

1801-1900 literature United States Indiana